Glossary of Terms
Charlotte, North Carolina
Abdominoplasty (Tummy Tuck)
Sometimes after multiple pregnancies or large weight loss, abdominal muscles weaken, and skin becomes flaccid. Abdominoplasty can tighten the abdominal muscles and, in some instances, improve stretch marks. In both men and women, the procedure removes excess skin and fat. Generally, an incision is made across the pubic area and around the umbilicus (navel). When skin laxity and muscle weakness are confined to the lower part of the abdomen, a modified abdominoplasty that limits tissue removal and muscle repair to the area below the navel may be performed. This usually leaves a shorter scar and no scarring around the navel.
This is a general term for tissue regeneration used in breast reconstruction surgeries. Dr. Capizzi was among the first Charlotte-area plastic surgeons to use Acellular Dermis to improve breast reconstruction outcomes. Today it is the standard of care in Tissue Expander reconstruction. Accellular Dermis offers many benefits such as more rapid breast mound reconstruction, improved soft tissue coverage, and a decrease in capsular contracture in both breast reconstruction and revision procedures.
Allergan is a well-know pharmaceutical company and the maker of Botox® and Juvéderm,® as well as breast implants, including the fifth-generation, form-stable silicone gel Gummy Bear implant (Natrelle 410).
This is the most established Acellular Dermis brand name and the one Dr. Capizzi uses in virtually all Tissue Expander reconstructions. Alloderm’s excellent outcomes are well documented. Alloderm effectively supports breast mound reconstruction, efficiently covering the expander and responding with demonstrated excellent results to volume expansions.
American Board of Plastic Surgeons
This board governs all board-eligible and certified plastic surgeons in the United States. Dr. Capizzi is fully certified and participates in ongoing education and professional conferences to continually improve patient outcomes. Dr. Capizzi urges patients to understand physician credentials and expertise as they consider plastic surgery.
American Society of Plastic Surgery (ASPS)
A professional society for which only board-eligible or board-certified plastic surgeons may be admitted. Dr. Capizzi has been a member continuously since 1997.
American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
An important professional organization with stringent requirements for entry, including board certification in plastic surgery as well as a minimum of three years experience and over 100 plastic surgery procedures performed annually. Dr. Capizzi has been a member since 2000.
Arnica Montana (Sinecchi™)
Dr. Capizzi recommends this herb to patients both pre- and post-operatively to reduce bruising and discomfort after cosmetic and reconstructive procedures. Sinecchi is a brand name for this natural herb.
Body lift surgery is performed to correct excess loose and sagging skin. Surgical body lifting improves the shape and tone of the underlying tissue that supports fat and skin. Incision patterns vary based on the area or areas treated as well as the degree of correction needed. Body lift procedures can include abdominoplasty, thigh lift, brachioplasty (arm lift), and breast lift surgery.
Botox is a simple, non-surgical treatment that can temporarily smooth moderate to severe frown lines. Botox is a purified protein produced by the clostridium botulinum bacterium, which reduces the muscle activity that create frown lines between the brows and other areas of the face. Botox also effectively treats hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) in the armpits, feet or hands.
This is a registered name for a breast enhancement and shaping system, which utilizes a suction cup over the breast to increase size and breast volume naturally. It can also be used in conjunction with fat grafting to improve symmetry in breast reconstruction. Dr. Capizzi is currently investigating the efficacy of this process and, if results merit, may incorporate it into Stillwater’s breast augmentation and reconstruction practices.
Breast Augmentation (Augmentation Mammoplasty)
Breast augmentation is typically performed to enlarge small breasts, underdeveloped breasts or breasts that have decreased in size after a woman has had children. It is accomplished by surgically inserting an implant behind each breast. An incision is made either under the breast, around the areola (the pink skin surrounding the nipple) or in the armpit. A pocket is created for the implant either behind the breast tissue or behind the muscle between the breast and the chest wall.
Breast Lift (Mastopexy)
Frequently, a woman elects this surgery after significant weight, or loss of breast volume and tone after child bearing. The plastic surgeon relocates the nipple and areola to a higher position, repositions the breast tissue to a higher level, removes excess skin from the lower portion of the breast and then reshapes the remaining breast skin. Incisions are made around the areola, extending vertically down the breast and horizontally along the crease underneath the breast. See Benelli lift, mini-lift and tacking, a very popular, effective and less invasive breast lift technique suitable for many women.
A breast implant is a prosthesis used in cosmetic surgery to enhance the size and shape of a woman’s breasts (known as breast augmentation) or to reconstruct the breast (usually after a mastectomy). Implants are saccular, breast-shaped pouches made of a silicone outer shell and filled with either silicone gel or saline (salt water). Today, fourth-generation, round, cohesive gel implants made of silicone polymer are the most common implants used in America and in Dr. Capizzi’s practice. Dr. Capizzi performs approximately 300 breast augmentation surgeries annually and over 3,500 in his career to date.
Breast Reduction (Reduction Mammoplasty)
Breast reduction involves removing excess breast tissue and skin, repositioning the nipple and areola (the pink skin surrounding the nipple) and reshaping the remaining breast tissue. The objective is to achieve breast size proportionate with a woman’s overall profile and alleviate discomfort and medical issues associated overly large breasts.
Broad Band Light (BBL)
This is a term used synonymously with Intense Pulsed Light (IPL). BBL is register by Sciton and among the very best in the marketplace today. BBL is very effective in the removal of age spots, brown spots, melasma and hyperpigmentation. BBL is also used for skin tightening. SkinTyte® is a form of BBL.
Buccal Fat Pad
Buccal fat pads are located above the jawline near the corner of the mouth. They can be removed in individuals with excessively round faces to give a more contoured look, sometimes referred to as the “waif look.” However, plastic surgeons warn that in some individuals removal of the buccal fat pads can lead to a drawn, hollow-cheeked look as natural aging progresses.
Buffered Phenol Peel
Buffered phenol offers yet another option for severely sun-damaged skin. One such formula uses olive oil, among other ingredients, to diminish the strength of the phenol solution. Another slightly milder formula uses glycerin. Buffered phenol peels may be more comfortable for patients, and the skin heals faster than with a standard phenol peel.
Excess fat and loose skin in the buttock area can be reduced by performing a buttock lift in combination with lipoplasty (liposuction). Incisions required for skin removal can often be hidden in the fold beneath the buttocks. When a buttocks lift does not produce the desired buttocks shape, Dr. Capizzi offers an additional option. The doctor can harvest fat via tumescent liposuction and inject or graft the patient’s own fat into the buttock to increase volume. Some desired fat will remain and add shape; the body will reabsorb the rest. This can be done multiple times. The procedure is far superior to Buttocks Implants.
In this procedure, solid silicone implants designed to increase the buttocks volume are surgically inserted in the buttocks. Dr. Capizzi is committed to patient satisfaction. As a result, he does not perform this surgery. Buttocks implants have an increased risk for removal and misplacement over time. Dr. Capizzi offers an innovative option, a Buttock Lift, performed in combination with tumescent liposuction.
A cannula is a hollow tube attached to a high-vacuum device used to remove fat through liposuction. The plastic surgeon manipulates the cannula within the fat layers under the skin, dislodging fat and suctioning it out.
This is the most common problem associated with breast implants. It occurs when naturally forming scar tissue around the implant shrinks and tightens, making the breast feel firmer than normal and sometimes causing pain and an unnatural breast appearance. Capsular contracture can be treated with breast revision surgery. This includes exchange of the implant, removal of scar tissue, introduction of a textured implant, and placement of Acellular Dermis (Alloderm or Strattice) to ensure secure positioning over time.
Captique is a clear gel containing a purified form of hyaluronic acid. It adds volume lost during the aging process by temporarily smoothing out facial lines and wrinkles. Captique is injected just under the skin’s surface to temporarily correct wrinkles.
Fine lines and wrinkles around the mouth and on the forehead and cheek areas may be improved with a wide range of skin treatments. A chemical peel solution is applied to the entire face or to specific treatment areas; it peels away the skin’s top layers. Several light-to-medium-depth peels can often achieve similar results to one deep peel, with less risk and shorter recovery time. Peel solutions may contain alpha hydroxy acids, tricholoracetic acid (TCA) or phenol as the peeling agent, depending on the depth of peel desired and on other patient selection factors.
Chin Augmentation (Mentoplasty)
Chin augmentation increases projection, strengthening the appearance of a weak or receding chin. The procedure does not affect the patient’s bite or jaw. There are two techniques. One is performed through an incision inside the mouth and involves moving the chinbone and wiring it into position. The other approach requires insertion of an implant through an incision inside the mouth, between the lower lip and the gum, or through an external incision underneath the chin.
All silicone breast implants are cohesive; however, some are more cohesive than others. The most cohesive gel implants are what’s termed fifth-generation. Sientra’s fifth-generation silicone gel implant earned FDA approval in 2012. Dr. Capizzi is a coinvestigator for the Gummy Bear fifth-generation implant from Allergan, more formally know as the Natrelle 410.
Collagen is an injectable protein that can be used to treat facial wrinkles. Before treatment, patients should be tested for possible allergic reaction. Collagen injections are effective, but not permanent. Treatment must be repeated periodically to maintain results.
The Coobie bra is comfortable and supportive with no underwire. It provides shape and structure for women post-surgically (and it remains a favorite in the lingerie drawer well after surgery).
CoolSculpting has come of age with just one caveat: this relatively new, non-surgical fat-removal technique should be undertaken with a trained counselor to achieve the best results. Targeted body fat is cooled to -4C. The cooling process diminishes fat cells and promotes gradual absorption over a 6-12 week period.
Cosmoplast is a cosmetic filler made of human collagen. It softens unwanted lines and wrinkles. It can also add definition to the lip border. Results typically last 3-4 months. Cosmoplast is frequently in conjunction with hyaluronic acid.
During dermabrasion, a high-speed rotary wheel, similar to fine-grained sandpaper, is used to abrade the skin. It may be recommended to mitigate extensive sun damage and heavy skin wrinkling. Dermabrasion can also be used to improve the texture of pockmarked skin resulting from severe childhood acne or chicken pox. Following treatment, the skin should appear firmer and smoother, but permanent pigment changes may occur.
Double bubble is a breast implant deformity where the implant sags behind the breast tissue. This usually occurs when the implant is placed behind the chest muscle. Oversized implants, relative to the patient’s body size, can be a contributing factor.
A simple, 30-minute procedure, earlobe reduction can be performed in a plastic surgeon’s office or at the same time as a facelift operation. The reduction should not comprise more than 25% of the total length of the ear. In cases where it exceeds this dimension, an L-shaped wedge is cut away and the earlobe edges are brought together and sutured.
Eyelid Surgery (Blepharoplasty)
Aesthetic eyelid surgery reduces the fat that causes bags under the eyes and removes wrinkled, drooping layers of skin on the eyelids. Incisions follow the natural contour lines in both upper and lower lids, or can be done through the lining of the lower eyelid, providing access to skin and fatty tissue. The thin surgical scars are usually barely visible and blend into the eyes’ natural lines and folds.
A facelift can reduce sagging skin on the face and neck. Incisions are placed in the hairline and then pass in front of and behind the ears; the exact incision strategy may vary from patient to patient and according to the surgeon’s personal technique. When necessary, removal of fatty deposits beneath the skin and tightening of sagging muscles is performed. The slack in the skin itself is then taken up and the excess removed. Scars can usually be concealed by hair and makeup.
This is a procedure where fat is harvested from one body site and injected into another. For example, the procedure may be used to smooth lines in the face or plump up lips. In most cases, the body naturally reabsorbs a percentage of injected fat and the procedure must be repeated. Fat injection into the breasts as an augmentation strategy is a dangerous procedure and not recommended. Dense scarring may result and hinder accurate mammogram readings. However, there are exciting new technologies currently under FDA investigation. Dr. Capizzi, as always, will evaluate advances and introduce new procedures to patients when safety and results are assured. He believes fat injections may hold promise for patients who have undergone partial mastectomy and radiation therapy.
The Federal Drug Administration conducts extensive testing of medical products with elite surgeons and physicians before these products are approved and enter into the market. Dr. Capizzi is a trusted FDA coinvestigator, most recently on the Natrelle 410, or Gummy Bear implant.
Fibrel is a synthetic alternative to collagen and fat injections for the treatment of facial wrinkles. As with collagen and fat, Fibrel treatments must repeated at intervals to maintain desired results.
Flash Lamp Pump Dye Laser (see Vbeam)
Uniform light generated at 545 wave length is used for to mitigate wrinkles, rosacea, angiomas, and facial veins. This type of laser has a long medical history and is used for most red lesions.
Forehead Lift (Brow Lift)
The forehead lift is designed to correct or improve skin wrinkling, as well as loss of tone and sagging of the eyebrows that often occurs as part of the aging process. The procedure may also help to smooth horizontal expression lines in the forehead and vertical frown lines between the eyebrows. Incisions are placed behind the hairline above the ear and pass over the top of the head. In some cases, incisions may be placed in front of the hairline. Some patients may have the procedure performed with the use of an endoscope, requiring much shorter incisions.
Hyaluronic acid exists naturally in all living organisms and is a universal component of the spaces between cells of body tissues (extracellular space). It is a polysaccharide with an identical chemical structure, no matter whether it is found in simple bacteria or in human beings. Restylane,® Captique,® and Juvéderm® are all forms of hyaluronic acid.
Hydroxyapatite granules are a bone substitute made from coral used to enhance facial contours, such as forming more prominent cheekbones. The substance also has reconstructive uses in craniofacial surgery. Radiesse® is a brand name for calcium hydroxyapatite.
JCAHO is an acronym for the Joint Committee for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. This is a national nonprofit group that certifies and ensures that specific standards are maintained in hospitals and surgical centers. Dr. Capizzi’s surgical center and hospital partners are fully JCAHO certified.
Lasers can be effectively used to eliminate surface blood vessels on the face that redden and enlarge with sun exposure. The problem is most often seen in fair-skinned individuals who cannot tan or have difficulty tanning. Laser skin resurfacing effectively reduces sun damage. It’s a great alternative to chemical peel for many patients. Dr. Capizzi recommends the Candela GentleLASE® and the Candela Vbeam® for the best results.
Latissimus Dorsi is breast reconstruction surgery approach following mastectomy. This procedure takes a section of muscle, fat, and skin that remains attached from the back and tunnels it through the armpit. The flap is attached over the chest wall muscle creating a pocket in which an implant can be placed.
Permanent lip augmentation can be accomplished by surgically advancing the lip forward with incisions inside the mouth. A dermal-fat graft, taken from the deeper layers of the skin, is positioned under the mucosa (the lining of the lip) to add additional plumpness. Injecting fat, collagen or other substances for lip augmentation is another alternative. The correction is not permanent, and injections must be repeated periodically to maintain results.
This is a technique that surgically lifts the corners of the mouth to eliminate a pronounced droop and unhappy facial expression that sometimes develops with advanced age. By cutting away small diamonds of skin just above the corners of the mouth, the vermilion (border of the lips) is raised into a slight smile.
To reduce the lips, a small strip of the mucosa (the lining of the lip) is surgically removed to narrow the lips to the desired proportion. The small scars on the outside of the lips are barely noticeable.
This is an unreliable fat dissolution procedure where multiple products are injected into a treatment area. Lipodissolve is not FDA approved. This procedure can compromise the liver and result in unwanted asymmetries. Dr. Capizzi obviously does not recommend.
During lipoplasty, the plastic surgeon removes localized collections of fatty tissue from the legs, buttocks, abdomen, back, arms, face and neck using a high vacuum device. The procedure leaves only minute scars, often as short as one-half inch in length or less. The use of refined equipment allows removal from delicate areas such as calves and ankles. While lipoplasty removes fat, it cannot eliminate dimpling or correct skin laxity. If a patient’s skin has lost significant elasticity, the plastic surgeon may recommend a skin tightening procedure such as a thigh lift, buttock lift or arm lift, all of which leave more extensive scars.
Malar Augmentation (Cheekbone Augmentation)
Here stronger cheekbones are sculpted with the placement of implants. The procedure is usually performed with an incision inside the mouth, but it may be done through a lower-eyelid or brow-lift incision.
Mentor is a large international pharmaceutical company specializing in implants (both saline and silicone) for cosmetic breast augmentation and breast reconstruction surgery, as well body contouring and anti-aging products.
An effective next-step procedure after chemical peels and microdermabrasion, a microlaser peel is an ablative skin-resurfacing treatment, which can erase wrinkles, sun damage and other discolorations. Dr. Capizzi recommends Sciton microlaser peel technology. The Stillwater team is expert.
As the name suggests, this limited-incision facelift is effective lifting the mid-face or the neck. The procedure is less invasive than a full, classic facelift. It is ideal for many patients. The results are more subtle and natural than a full facelift. Note that other names associated with the mini-facelift are Quicklift® and Lifestyle Lift.®
The Mixto CO2 Fractional Laser is a computerized laser light that treats the skin at highly targeted, specific points. This shortens downtime and allows for contraction in the untreated areas. It is excellent for improving scars caused from acne.
The Mommy Makeover is a series of plastic surgeries groomed especially for an individual woman to restore her post-pregnancy body (or even improve upon her original silhouette). It usually includes breast lift, breast implants and body contouring procedures such as tummy tuck and liposuction. The Mommy Makeover is one of Dr. Capizzi’s most commonly performed procedures.
Natrelle 410 Cohesive Gel Implants (Gummy Bear)
The Natrelle 410 silicone-filled breast implant from Allergan, also known informally as the Gummy Bear, is the newest and possibly most exciting advancement in silicone gel implants. This is the fifth-generation of form-stable gel implants. The Gummy Bear is a textured, teardrop-shaped implant (available in over 100 sizes and shapes) filled with a cohesive silicone gel, which is more like a soft solid (hence the nickname Gummy Bear). This implant maintains its shape. Unlike liquid-filled implants, the Gummy Bear is also less likely to leak, wrinkle, fold or ripple. Presently, the true Gummy Bear is only available through Dr. Capizzi. He is an FDA coinvestigator and has performed over 150 surgeries with this implant. In 2012, Sientra’s fifth-generation silicone gel implant was FDA approved. This is also available through Dr. Capizzi.
This is an advanced breast reconstruction procedure that allows for preservation of the breast skin, nipple and surrounding areola. Breast tissue is removed at mastectomy and followed with an immediate implant procedure, performed as one surgical event. Not all women are candidates for this procedure. Women are encouraged to consult with their surgical oncologist and Dr. Capizzi.
Otoplasty (Ear Surgery)
During otoplasty ears are positioned closer to the head by reshaping the cartilage (supporting tissue). This is usually accomplished through incisions placed behind the ears so that subsequent scars will be concealed in a natural skin crease. Otoplasty can be performed on children as early as age five or six.
Power-Assisted Liposuction (PAL)
Dr. Capizzi performs Power-Assisted Liposuction with state-of-the-art medical equipment made in the United States by Micoaire. A tumescent solution is first flushed in the treatment area to ease release of fatty tissue. PAL specifically refers to the use of a reciprocating cannula, a straw-like device, to remove fat. The tumescent PAL approach practiced by Dr. Capizzi, very effective – and less traumatic to the treatment area, facilitating a speedy recovery with less bruising.
Like Restylane,® Perlane is a hyaluronic acid injectable formulated to add volume to your body’s own hyaluronic acid. Perlane particles are larger than those of Restylane. It is a good choice to improve deeper wrinkles.
The chemical phenol is sometimes used for full-face peeling when sun damage or wrinkling is severe. It can also be used to treat limited areas of the face, such as deep wrinkles around the mouth, but it may permanently bleach the skin, leaving a line of demarcation between the treated and untreated areas that must be covered with makeup.
This is the muscle which, when tight and firm, gives the neck underneath the chin and jawline a youthful contour. The platysma muscle can be tightened during a facelift or as a separate procedure.
Pseudoptosis is condition where the breast gland descends beneath the crease, while the nipple stays above or at the crease level. This can be corrected with the placement of a breast implant. Pseudoptosis is a condition that occurs naturally over time, especially among women who have had children. Pseudoptosis is graded 1, 2 or 3 based on the position of the nipple and breast crease. The more ptotic, the more likely a breast lift will be required to regain optimum shape.
Radiesse is a volumizing filler comprised of injectable calcium hydroxyapatite. Each crystal is encapsulated in a dissolvable solvent that the body resorbs in approximately six months. Radiesse was originally FDA-approved as a vocal chord treatment. Today is it highly effective to restore fullness at nasolabial folds, cheeks and jawline.
Restylane is a crystal-clear, biodegradable NASHA (Non-Animal Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid) gel, which is injected into the dermis in tiny amounts with a very fine needle. The result is instantaneous, producing a long-lasting (but not permanent), natural enhancement, gentle and safe to the skin. Most patients use Restylane to plump up their lips, nasal labial folds, and other facial areas.
Retonic Acid (Vitamin A) is available in many different concentrations. FDA-approved for over 25 years with demonstrated results in reversing signs of aging in the skin, Retin-A is a mainstay of many of today’s skin care treatment regimens.
The SCAP Flap (superior gluteal artery perforator) is an option for breast reconstruction and revision patients. During this tissue flap procedure, fat and skin from your upper buttock are harvested to create a new breast mound. While this is an option for consideration, presently Tissue Expanders with breast implants continue to offer the most ideal symmetry and best outcomes.
This is the newest, most advanced multiple-platform laser used in Dr. Capizzi’s office. It provides BBL treatment of fine lines and wrinkles, SkinTyte II, hair removal, Microlaser peel (MLP) and resurfacing.
Sclerotherapy effectively treats spider veins of the legs and small varicose veins with the use of a saline- or alcohol-based solution. The process takes 30-60 minutes depending on the size of the treatment area.
Sientra (formerly Silimed) is a company that specializes in plastic surgery implants, including breast implants. The FDA approved a fifth-generation cohesive gel implant made by Sientra in 2012. Dr. Capizzi is a coinvestigator on the new Gummy Bear implant, also a fifth-generation, form-stable implant made by Allergan.
Silicone is most common product used for breast implants in the world today. Even saline implants contain silicone: a silicone polymer forms the actual solid container for saline filler in these types of implants. Today, Dr. Capizzi is an FDA coinvestigator for the fifth-generation cohesive-gel silicone implant (also known as the Gummy Bear). The doctor was also an FDA coinvestigator for the fourth generation silicone gel implant in 2006 as well.
Silk Peel is a non-invasive, non-ablative procedure, which exfoliates dead skin cells and stimulates new skin cell growth. Silk Peel is most often used for skin hydration, acne treatment and skin lightening.
Sciton’s SkinTyte is a very effective BBL (see Broad Band Light) laser treatment that stimulates collagen rejuvenation at the deepest layers of the skin. It is recommended for use on the face and other areas of the body, such as abdomen and thighs (often after liposuction), as well as knees, elbows and neck.
During SMART Liposuction a laser is used to heat and emulsify fat. The technology does not remove fat. The fatty liquid is removed by traditional liposuction means. Dr. Capizzi does not perform SMART Liposuction due to sub-optimal results. Presently, the company that makes and markets SMART Liposuction has been banned from attending national American Society of Plastic Surgery meetings.
SMAS is an acronym for Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System. It is a layer of tissue that covers the deeper structures in the cheek area. It performs in continuity with the superficial muscle covering the lower face and neck, called the platysma. Some facelift techniques lift and reposition the SMAS as well as the skin.
This is a breast deformity that, when viewed from the side, resembles the cartoon dog’s profile. The breast is full at the top with the nipple positioned lower. Breast tissue sags over the inferior edge of the implant. While this may resolve in time, generally breast revision surgery is required.
Strattice is a brand name for an Acellular Dermis product used primarily in breast revision surgery. The patient’s own issue becomes integrated into the xenograft (pig) dermis to provide important additional strength and support in breast implants.
Subfascial refers to the tissue beneath fascia covering the muscle. As a breast augmentation strategy, subfascial placement does not offer the support necessary to produce a natural and pleasing outcome.
Superficial Syringe Liposculpture
Here, a syringe is employed to withdraw fat, instead of vacuum suctioning pumps. This procedure can allows for less blood loss and speedier postoperative recovery. Superficial syringe liposculpture is only effectively performed on the layer of fat just beneath the skin.
Tacking – sometimes called tailor tacking, mini-breast lift, Benelli lift or circumareolar breast lift. This procedure involves a limited incision at the areola and the removal of 2-3 cm of skin located in the same area. It is frequently used during breast implant procedures (both saline and silicone) to improve skin laxity and overall outcome.
Tricholoracetic acid is used as a peel for the face, neck, hands and other exposed areas of the body. It has less bleaching effect than phenol, and is excellent for “spot” peeling of specific areas. It can be used for deep, medium or light peeling, depending on the concentration and method of application.
Thermage is a radiofrequency machine that heats soft tissue in an attempt to decrease wrinkling. The enthusiasm for this procedure has markedly diminished over the past five years – deservedly.
A thigh lift can be performed to tighten sagging muscles and remove excess skin in the thigh area. Because a thigh lift leaves noticeable scars in the inner or outer thigh area that some patients find undesirable, it is not a frequently performed procedure.
Tissue Expansion Breast Reconstruction
Tissue Expansion is a procedure for breast reconstruction following mastectomy. A pocket is created between the chest wall and the chest muscle to hold a balloon expander. The expander is gradually filled over a period of one to two months with saline injections through a small port. This injection process gradually and naturally stretches the skin and muscle. Once the breast mound is to the desired size, the expander is removed and replaced with an implant (saline or silicone). The nipple/areola area is reconstructed by using tattooing and pieces of skin.
Tram-Flap Breast Reconstruction
The Tram-Flap is a another effective procedure for breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Here, a section of abdominal muscle, fat, and skin still attached to its blood supply (pedicled tram) are tunneled up to the chest area. It is sewn in place to build a new breast mound. With the muscle-sparing pedicled tram, one third (33%) of the muscle is used. This conserves 70% of the abdominal muscle traditionally described for this procedure. The nipple/areola area is reconstructed by using tattooing and pieces of skin.
Transconjunctival blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery) is performed by making an incision from inside the lower eyelid. It avoids any scarring on the lower lid. It is a useful technique when only fat, and not skin or muscle, needs to be removed from the eyelid area.
Transumbilical Breast Augmentation refers to an incision type at the navel. Dr. Capizzi does not recommend this method, as it does not allow for precise control of the implant and result in outstanding outcomes.
The Candela Vbeam® Laser is the gold standard in the treatment of vascular lesions, such as broken facial capillaries and rosacea as well as in the treatment of red acne scars, surgical or burn scars, angiomas, port wine birth marks, psoriasis and wrinkles.